Eblan civilization

syria01Around the excavated city of Ebla near Idlib city in norther Syria, discovered in 1975, a great Semitic empire spread from the Red Sea north to Turkey and east to Mesopotamia from 2500 to 2400 BC Ebla appears to have been founded around 3000 BC, and gradually built its empire through trade with the cities of Sumer and Akkad, as well as with peoples to the northwest. Gifts from Pharaohs, found during excavations, confirm Ebla’s contact with Egypt. Scholars believe the language of Ebla to be among the oldest known written Semitic languages, designated as Paleo-Canaanite.However, more recent classifications of the Eblaite language has shown that it was an East Semitic language, closely related to the Akkadian language.The Eblan civilization was likely conquered by Sargon of Akkad around 2260 BC; the city was restored, as the nation of the Amorites, a few centuries later, and flourished through the early second millennium BC until conquered by the Hittites

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Idlib

Idlib – a town in north-west Syria, near the border with Turkey, an administrative center muhafazy Idlib. Approximately 110 thousand. residents. Region’s growing commercial center of wheat, olives, figowców, textiles, clothing, food.

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Dara

Dara (arab. محافظة درعة) – one of 14 administrative units the first row (muhafaza) in Syria. It is located in the southern part of the country. Bordered on the east side of Suwayda, on the north of Hims, on the east with Jordan and in the north of the Rif Dimaszk, in the west of Al-Kunajtira and in the south of Jordan.

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Arrival

German nationals need a visa to enter. The visa is basically at the Syrian Embassy in Berlin or the Syrian Honorary Consul in Hamburg to apply. One issue on the border is only possible for group travelers, their German tour with a Syrian partner. The group travelers will receive a free visa.

Germans who arrive without a visa, Syria must regularly with the next plane to leave. If the passport entry stamp or Israeli entry stamp from crossing the borders of Israel (Allenby-/König Hussein Bridge crossing to Jordan or Taba border crossing (Sinai) to Egypt) is the entry – even if the Syrian embassy issued a visa – is denied. Affected people are in Germany or returned to the country of origin.

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Politics

Syria has the following executive branches of government: the president, two vice presidents, prime minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet). Syria’s legislative branch is the unicameral People’s Council.

Syria’s judicial branches include the Supreme Constitutional Court, the High Judicial Council, the Court of Cassation, and the State Security Courts. Islamic jurisprudence is a main source of legislation and Syria’s judicial system has elements of Ottoman, French, and Islamic laws. Syria has three levels of courts: courts of first instance, courts of appeals, and the constitutional court, the highest tribunal. Religious courts handle questions of personal and family law.

Political parties: the Arab Socialist Resurrection (Baath) Party (Baath Party), Syrian Arab Socialist Party, Arab Socialist Union, Syrian Communist Party, Arab Socialist Unionist Movement, Democratic Socialist Union Party, and around 15 very small tolerated political parties.

Suffrage: Universal at the age of 18

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Etymology

The name Syria derives from the ancient Greek name for Syrians, Σύριοι Syrioi, which the Greeks applied without distinction to various Assyrian people. Modern scholarship confirms the Greek word traces back to the cognateἈσσυρία, Assyria, ultimately derived from the Akkadian Aššur,

The area designated by the word has changed over time. Classically, Syria lies at the eastern end of the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt and Arabia to the south and Cilicia to the north, stretching inland to include Mesopotamia, and having an uncertain border to the northeast that Pliny the Elder describes as including, from west to east, Commagene, Sophene, and Adiabene, “formerly known as Assyria”. By Pliny’s time, however, this larger Syria had been divided into a number of provinces under the Roman Empire (but politically independent from each other): Judaea, later renamed Palaestina in AD 135 (the region corresponding to modern day Palestine and Israel, and Jordan) in the extreme southwest, Phoenicia corresponding to Lebanon, with Damascena to the inland side of Phoenicia, Coele-Syria (or “Hollow Syria”) south of the Eleutheris river, and Mesopotamia.

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When to Go

The best time of year to go to Syria is spring (March to May) when the weather is mild and wildflowers are in bloom. In Damascus, the winter rains will have cleared the haze and swollen the rivers, so the wooden norias (waterwheels) in Hama will be turning and fresh, clean water flowing through the city.

Autumn (September to November) is the next-best choice, between the intense heat of summer and the cloud of winter. If you go in summer (June to August), don’t be caught without a hat, sunscreen and water bottle, especially if you’re going to Palmyra or the northeast. Coastal areas such as Lattakia can get extremely humid, while the interiors will be very hot and dry. Winter can also be rather unpleasant. The winter rains can make sightseeing difficult, but if you’re lucky, a blanket of snow may cover Damascus and the high altitudes. Bear in mind that the cheaper hotels may not have heating.

If you are travelling during school holidays, you should book accommodation well in advance. Travelling in the Muslim fasting month of Ramadan may also require a bit more planning: some cafes and restaurants close during the day, and some offices operate reduced and erratic hours. Ramadan nights, particularly during the final three days of the Eid al-Fitr can be particularly lively.

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